What is Hematuria?
The presence of blood in your urine can be alarming. While in many instances the cause is harmless, blood in urine (hematuria) can indicate a serious disorder. Hematuria is the scientific term for blood in urine.It can be divided into two types- Gross ( visible to naked eye) or microscopic ( found during urine microscopy testing )
What are the main causes / common causes of hematuria?
Urinary tract infections ( Infections in bladder – cystitis )
Stones ( located in the kidney , urinary bladder , ureter )
Trauma ( due to road traffic accidents , physical violence )
Benign enlargement of prostate ( commonly seen in elderly males)
Malignancy ( cancer involving kidneys , urinary bladder or prostate or any other part of urinary tract )
What to expect from urologist?
Details related to the symptoms of the patient shall be noted .If the patient is already on any medication for other health problems , the doctor should be made aware of the same during the visit. Physical examination including digital rectal examination may be performed in male patients . Depending on the findings various investigations including a combination of ultrasound, CT scans, Urine tests , blood tests , cystoscopy ( putting a small device into the bladder through the urethra ) to shall be advised to arrive at a diagnosis
What are my treatment options?
It depends upon the condition of the patient. It may include medicines for
treating the infection and enhancing the urine outflow. Treatment may include endoscopic procedures to remove tumours in urinary bladder or to to treat the stones in the urinary system ( using LASER for example- URS / RIRS ) or to remove the enlarged prostate tissue ( TURP , HOLEP) .
Trauma-causing hematuria may be treated by conservative management or surgical treatment depending on the patient’s condition . Some patients may require more extensive treatment like laparoscopic radical or partial nephrectomy or radical prostatectomy or radical cystectomy if they are diagnosed with cancer depending on their stage of disease.
What happens if we ignore the blood in urine?
The conditions causing hematuria can aggravate leading to the following consequences
- Complete blockage of urinary outflow (acute retention of urine )
- Renal failure requiring dialysis
- Infections leading life threatening sepsis
- Malignancy spreading throughout the various organs of body ( metastasis )